Keanekaragaman Manifestasi Klinis pada Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)

  • Budi Yanti syiah kuala
  • T Andi Syahputra
  • Fitri Amalia Rahma
  • Rauzatil Aula Katuri
  • Rosi Mega Safitri
Keywords: Diversity, Symptoms, COVID-19, SARS CoV-2


Abstract Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was caused by SARS-CoV-2 and is currently a global public health problem. This disease transmits through aerosols and saliva when coughing and sneezing from a person with symptoms or carrier people. The diversity of clinical manifestations would be detected and depended on the number of ACE2 receptor expressions that are scattered throughout the human body. The more expression in the organ, the more frequent symptoms that appear in the patient. The respiratory dysfunction is the most common symptoms that will be detected and followed by the olfactory dysfunction such as anosmia, the visual dysfunction such as conjunctivitis,  the digestive dysfunction such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, the vascular dysfunction such as thrombosis and embolism, and the cardiovascular dysfunction such as Acute Cardiac Injury and Acute Coronary Syndrome. This review literature used an internet-based search engine method that aims to discuss functional disorders in the human body system that caused diversity of clinical manifestations in COVID-19. Key words: Diversity, Symptoms, COVID-19, SARS CoV-2


Alhogbani, T. (2016). Acute myocarditis associated with novel Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Annals of Saudi Medicine, 36, 78–80.
Association, A. M. (2020). Alterations in Smell or Taste in Mildly Symptomatic Outpatients With SARS-CoV-2 Infection. Journal American Medical Association., 1–2.
Badawi, A., & Gwan, S. (2016). International Journal of Infectious Diseases Prevalence of comorbidities in the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus ( MERS-CoV ): a systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 49(January), 129–133.
Badawi, A., & Ryoo, S. G. (2016). Prevalence of comorbidities in the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV): a systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 49, 129–133.
Behzad, S., Aghaghazvini, L., Radmard, A. R., & Gholamrezanezhad, A. (2020). Extrapulmonary manifestations of COVID-19: Radiologic and clinical overview. In Clinical Imaging (Vol. 66, pp. 35–41). Elsevier Inc.
Brann, D., Tsukahara, T., & Weinreb, C. (2020). Non-neural expression of SARS-CoV-2 entry genes in the olfactory epithelium suggests mechanisms underlying anosmia in COVID-19 patients. BioRxiv, 1(1), 1–25.
Burhan, E., Isbaniah, F., Susanto, A., Yoga, Y., Tjandra, A., Sugiri, T., & Tantular, R. (2020). Pneumonia COVID-19 Diagnosis & Penatalaksanaan di Indonesia. Perhimpunan Dokter Paru Indonesia (PDPI).
Chan, J. F.-W., Yuan, S., Kok, K.-H., To, K. K.-W., Chu, H., Yang, J., Xing, F., Liu, J., Yip, C. C.-Y., Poon, R. W.-S., Tsoi, H.-W., Lo, S. K.-F., Chan, K.-H., Poon, V. K.-M., Chan, W.-M., Ip, J. D., Cai, J.-P., Cheng, V. C.-C., Chen, H., … Yuen, K.-Y. (2020). A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster. The Lancet, 395(10223), 514–523.
Cheng, H., Wang, Y., & Wang, G.-Q. (2020). Organ-protective Effect of Angiotensin-converting Enzyme 2 and its Effect on the Prognosis of COVID-19. Journal of Medical Virology, 92.
Dong, X., Cao, Y., Lu, X., Zhang, J., Du, H., Yan, Y., Akdis, C. A., & Gao, Y. (2020). Eleven faces of coronavirus disease 2019. Allergy, n/a(n/a).
Huang, C., Wang, Y., Li, X., Ren, L., Zhao, J., Hu, Y., Zhang, L., Fan, G., Xu, J., & Gu, X. (2020). Articles Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan , China. 6736(20), 1–10.
Huang, C., Wang, Y., Li, X., Ren, L., Zhao, J., Hu, Y., Zhang, L., Fan, G., Xu, J., Gu, X., Cheng, Z., Yu, T., Xia, J., Wei, Y., Wu, W., Xie, X., Yin, W., Li, H., Liu, M., … Cao, B. (2020). Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. The Lancet, 395(10223), 497–506.
Lechien, J., Estomba, C., De Siati, R. D., Horoi, M., Le Bon, S.-D., Rodriguez, A., Dequanter, D., Blecic, S., Afia, F., Distinguin, L., Chekkoury-Idrissi, Y., Hans, S., Delgado, I., Calvo-Henriquez, C., Lavigne, P., Falanga, C., Barillari, M. R., Cammaroto, G., Khalife, M., & Saussez, S. (2020). Olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions as a clinical presentation of mild-to-moderate forms of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19): a multicenter European study. European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, 277.
Lu, R., Zhao, X., Li, J., Niu, P., Yang, B., Wu, H., Wang, W., Song, H., Huang, B., Zhu, N., Bi, Y., Ma, X., Zhan, F., Wang, L., Hu, T., Zhou, H., Hu, Z., Zhou, W., Zhao, L., … Tan, W. (2020). Genomic characterisation and epidemiology of 2019 novel coronavirus: implications for virus origins and receptor binding. The Lancet, 395(10224), 565–574.
Martinc, D., Bremond, G., & Daruich, D. (2020). Ocular manifestation as first sign of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Interest of telemedicine during the pandemic context. Journal Français d’Ophtalmologie.
Meyer, B., Müller, M., Corman, V., Reusken, C., Ritz, D., Godeke, G.-J., Lattwein, E., Kallies, S., Siemens, A., van Beek, J., Drexler, J., Muth, D., Bosch, B. J., Wernery, U., Koopmans, M., Wernery, R., & Drosten, C. (2014). Antibodies against MERS Coronavirus in Dromedary Camels, United Arab Emirates, 2003 and 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20, 552–559.
Pradhan, P., Pandey, A., Mishra, A., Gupta, P., Tripathi, P., Menon, M., Gomes, J., Perumal, V., & Kundu, B. (2020). Uncanny similarity of unique inserts in the 2019-nCoV spike protein to HIV-1 gp120 and Gag.
Rabaan, A., Al-Ahmed, S., Haque, S., Sah, R., Tiwari, R., Malik, Y., Dhama, K., Yatoo, D. M., Bonilla-Aldana, D., & Rodriguez-Morales, A. (2020). SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV: a comparative overview. Le Infezioni in Medicina: Rivista Periodica Di Eziologia, Epidemiologia, Diagnostica, Clinica e Terapia Delle Patologie Infettive, 28, 174–184.
Sakabe, M., Yoshioka, R., & Fujiki, A. (2013). Sick sinus syndrome induced by interferon and ribavirin therapy in a patient with chronic hepatitis C. Journal of Cardiology Cases, 8(6), 173–175.
Sardu, C., Gambardella, J., & Morelli, M. B. (2020). Is COVID-19 an endothelial disease ? Clinical and basic evidence. April, 1–26.
Scalinci, S. Z., & Trovato, B. E. (2020). Conjunctivitis can be the only presenting sign and symptom of COVID-19. IDCases, 20, e00774.
Wang, D., Hu, B., Hu, C., Zhu, F., Liu, X., Zhang, J., Wang, B., Xiang, H., Cheng, Z., Xiong, Y., Zhao, Y., Li, Y., Wang, X., & Peng, Z. (2020). Clinical Characteristics of 138 Hospitalized Patients with 2019 Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association, 323(11), 1061–1069.
Wu, Q., Zhou, L., Sun, X., Yan, Z., Hu, C., Wu, J., Xu, L., Li, X., Liu, H., Yin, P., Li, K., Zhao, J., Li, Y., Wang, X., Li, Y., Zhang, Q., Xu, G., & Chen, H. (2017). Altered Lipid Metabolism in Recovered SARS Patients Twelve Years after Infection. Scientific Reports, 7.
Yanti, B., & Hayatun, U. (2019). Peran pemeriksaan radiologis pada diagnosis Coronavirus disease 2019. Jurnal Kedokteran Syiah Kuala Volume, 20(1), 53–57.
Yanti, B., Wahyudi, E., Wahiduddin, W., Novika, R. G. H., Arina, Y. M. D., Martani, N. S., & Nawan, N. (2020). Community Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior Towards Social Distancing Policy As Prevention Transmission of Covid-19 in Indonesia. Jurnal Administrasi Kesehatan Indonesia, 8(2), 4.
Zhang, H., Li, H.-B., Lyu, J.-R., Lei, X.-M., Li, W., Wu, G., Lyu, J., & Dai, Z.-M. (2020). Specific ACE2 expression in small intestinal enterocytes may cause gastrointestinal symptoms and injury after 2019-nCoV infection. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 96, 19–24.